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General
Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (Tuberc Respir Dis) gives priority to high-quality academic experimental or clinical research that will contribute to the development of knowledge of the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases. Manuscripts types include Original Articles, Reviews, Case Reports, Image of the Month, Editorial, and Letter to the Editor. Other types of manuscripts will be considered subject to review by the editorial board. The journal is issued on the last day of the month.
Ethical guidelines for research and publication
All work must conform to the ethical guidelines specified on Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (http://www.icmje.org/).

Research involving human subjects must conform to the ethical guidelines specified by the Declaration of Helsinki (http://www.bioscience.org/guides/declhels.htm). It is recommended that any research dealing with a clinical trial be registered with a primary national clinical trial registration site such as http://ncrc.cdc.go.kr/cris, or other sites accredited by the WHO or the Internation Committee of Medical Journal Editors. The relevant studies must have been approved by the Institutional Ethics Board or Institutional Review Board of each institution. It should also be noted, where applicable, that study subjects provided written informed consent. In cases of animal experimental studies, the experimental procedure must conform to the guidelines of the Institutional Ethics Board or those specified on the NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The editorial board reserves the right to require authors to submit copies of informed consent forms and a letter of the approval signed by the Institutional Ethics Board, if applicable.
Disclosure of conflict of interest
Financial and material support should be disclosed in the acknowledgements. Any outside financial support associated with the study, including stocks or consultation fees, should be disclosed on the transfer of copyright form. This form must be signed by all the authors.

In general, manuscripts containing content that was previously published in other journals will not be considered. Manuscripts may not be submitted simultaneously to any other journal. However, in cases in which manuscripts are to be submitted to other journals whose primary language and readership are different from those of the current journal, a duplicate publication might be permitted by both parties, together with suitable disclosure. This is permitted in cases which fulfill the criteria specified in Annals of Internal Medicine (Ann Intern Med 1997;126:36-47).

With regard to all matters associated with research ethics, such as ethical guidelines and plagiarism/duplicate publication/scientific misconduct, the review and processing procedures are based on 'Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals' (http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_ethics.html) and 'Guidelines on Good Publication' (http://www.publicationethics.org.uk/guidelines).
Submission of manuscripts
All cover letters, checklists, manuscripts, figures and tables should be submitted through the on-line submission system (http://esubmit.lungkorea.org) of The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (http://www.lungkorea.org). In general, manuscripts should be submitted by first authors, but submission by co-authors can be permitted.

The cover letter should state that the manuscript contains the authors' original work. If full or partial results described in this manuscript were previously published or reported in other journals or reports, then the authors should disclose this and provide details.

Following acceptance for publication, a copyright transfer agreement should be submitted, via fax or mail, to:

The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
101-605 58, Banpo-dae, Seocho-gu, Seoul,
137-875, Korea.

Fax: 82-2-572-6683
Review process
All manuscripts submitted are reviewed and edited through the on-line submission system (http://esubmit.lungkorea.org) of The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases (http://www.lungkorea.org). Submission and reviewing instructions, troubleshooting and questions regarding the review process and related matters can be found on the on-line system.

Submitted manuscripts are reviewed by more than two members of the editorial board and outside specialists in the relevant fields. If the editorial board determines that a manuscript is suitable for publication, it recommends appropriate revisions and corrections to the authors. Once the authors have completed the revisions, the manuscript should be resubmitted together with a detailed letter addressing the editors' and reviewers' recommendations.

In some cases, it might be necessary to revise the style or format of a manuscript to conform to publication policy, without substantially altering the original content.

Any manuscripts that do not meet the criteria of the journal may be rejected. All decisions on publication and publication order are made by the editorial board.

During a review process, unless specific reasons are provided, failure to resubmit a revised manuscript within 90 days will be considered an abandoned publication and the review process will be concluded.

Once the proof is completed and authors are asked for final revisions, these should be submitted within a week.
Principles of manuscript preparation
  • Formatting
  • Manuscripts should be prepared using Microsoft Word (.doc, .docx) or Arae-Ah Hangul (.hwp). The required formatting is as follows: A4-size paper, size 12 font, double-spacing, and 2.5 cm margins. Page numbers should appear at the bottom center of each page, including the title page.
    The total number of pages should not exceed 30 for Original Articles and 20 pages for Case Reports and Image of the Month. Letters to the Editor should not exceed 2 pages.
    Manuscripts should be arranged as Title, Abstract, Keywords, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, References, Figures and Tables. Each section should commence on a new page.

  • Language
  • Manuscripts should be submitted in English.
    Acronyms should be avoided where possible. Where a complex or cumbersome term or phrase is repeatedly used, however, it should be abbreviated, preferably using standard abbreviations. The abbreviation should be appear in parentheses following the first use of the term or phrase and can then be used in the remainder of the text.
    Human names, regional names and other proper nouns should be used in their original form. Arabic numerals should be used. Laboratory measurements should be expressed in SI (Standard International) units. Depending on the recommendations of the editorial board, non-SI units may be used in parentheses. A single space is usually required between the numeral and the unit; no space is inserted for % and ˚C.

  • Title page
  • The manuscript type (Original Article, Review, Case Report, Image of the Month or Letter to the Editor) should be stated on the title page.
    The English title should be no longer than 20 words.
    The title page should provide the title, author names and current affiliations and running title. Each name should be followed by a comma and the author’s most advanced degree. Affiliations should include the name of the academic institution or organization and the name of the clinical department or laboratory. In cases in which author affiliations differ, the institution where the main body of research was performed should appear first, followed by the other institutions. Superscripted Arabic numerals beside the author names, without parentheses, should refer to the list of affiliations.
    Details for the corresponding author (name, address, phone number, fax number and e-mail) should be provided.
    A running title, containing a maximum of 10 English words, should be provided near the bottom of the title page.
    Details of any stocks or consulting fees that could be associated with a conflict of interest relating to the current research should be specified at the bottom of the title page.

  • Abstract
  • For Original Articles, a structured abstract of up to 250 English words should be provided, containing categories such as Background, Methods, Results and Conclusion. The objectives, observations and main results should be provided. For Case Reports and Image of the Month, the Abstract should contain a maximum of 150 English words, with no subsections. Letters to the Editor and Editorials do not require abstracts. All other manuscripts should include an Abstract.

  • Keywords
  • Three to ten keywords, reflecting the contents of the manuscript, should be included. Authors should use MeSH (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/mesh) terms from Index Medicus. The first character of each word should be in upper case.

  • Introduction
  • Relevant background information should be briefly set out and the objectives of the study should be clearly and concisely stated.

  • Materials and Methods
  • This section should be detailed, and should be presented in a structured format, including study plan, materials and methods used. Statistical methods used for data analysis should be provided. In the case of clinical trials, authentication and approval from the Institutional Review Board should be specified.
    For equipment and reagents, the manufacturer, city and country should be provided in parentheses.

  • Results
  • A detailed description of the study results should be arranged in a logical manner. In the case of experimental studies, the bulk of the data should be presented in figures and tables. The contents of figures and tables should not be repeated in the main text. However, the main findings should be presented in the main text, with emphasis on the important trends, statistical significance and key points.

  • Discussion
  • The significance and implications of novel and important findings should be clearly and concisely presented, without unnecessary duplication of results. Based on this argument, plausible hypotheses could be proposed if warranted. Conclusions should refer to the study objectives.

  • Acknowledgements
  • Co-workers and others who contributed significantly to the current study, but were not co-authors, should be mentioned in the acknowledgements. All sources of financial and other support should also be stated.

  • References
  • The number of references should not exceed 40 for Original Articles and Reviews, or 15 for Case Reports and Image of the Month.
    References should be ordered according to order of appearance in the text, using Vancouver style. Journal abbreviations should follow Index Medicus. Unpublished data should preferably not be cited. Where this is unavoidable, however, the source should be placed in parentheses in the main text and such expressions as “personal opinion exchange” or “unpublished data” should be used.
    * The citation superscript style is as follows:
    Lee1 is --. -- 2,3-5. -- does1,2,

    * Style for reference list:
    1) Journal citations
    Park SK, Choi IH, Kim CM, Kim CT, Song SD. Clinical study of pulmonary tuberculosis for admitted patients at National Masan Tuberculosis Hospital. Tuberc Respir Dis 1997;44:241-50.
    Drazen JM, Israel E, Boushey HA, Chinchilli VM, Fahy JV, Fish JE, et al. Comparison of regularly scheduled with as-needed use of albuterol in mild asthma. N Engl J Med 1996;335:841-7.

    All co-authors should be listed unless there are more than seven authors, in which case the first six are listed, followed by “et al.".

    2) Whole books

    The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases. Respiratory diseases. 1st ed. Seoul: Koon Ja Publishing, Inc.; 2004.
    Light RW. Pleural diseases. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2007.

    3) Book chapters

    Ryu SH. Pulmonary vascular diseases. In: Han YC editor. Clinical pulmonology. Seoul: Ilchokak; 1990. p. 252-8.
    McFadden ER Jr. Chapter 236. Asthma. In: Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, editors. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 16th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Co, Inc.; 2005. p. 1508-16.

    4) Other types of literature should be formatted are based on ‘Citing Medicine: The NLM Style Guide for Authors, Editors, and Publishers’.

  • Tables
  • Tables should be concise. Use horizontal lines only. Number tables in the order in which they are mentioned in the main text, and refer to them in the text as follows:
    --- is represented (Table 1). Table 2 represents ---
    Place the title above the table, using sentence case. Below each table, provide a key to abbreviations and additional explanations if needed. Table footnotes should use these symbols: *, †, ‡, §,∥, ¶, **, †† and ‡‡.

    BAL: bronchoalveolar lavage; ICU: intensive care unit;
    NS: not significant.
    *p<0.001. †p<0.05.

    Tables and legends should provide enough detail that the study data can be understood without reference to the main text.
    Tables that have been previously published may not be used.

  • Figures
  • Figures include graphs, line drawings and photographs. All figures in a PowerPoint (.ppt) format should be submitted separately from the main manuscript. Images should be clear, with resolution exceeding 300 dpi. Each figure should be accompanied by a number. It should be possible for readers to understand the figures without reference to the text. Number the figures in the order in which they are mentioned in the main text, and refer to them in the text as follows:
    --- is shown (Figure 1). Figure 2 shows ---
    If any images were not generated by the authors, this should be stated and the source provided.
    The magnification ratios should not be written for the photos taken via light microscopy. However, the magnification ratios and the names of the special staining methods, and the magnification ratios of the photomicrographs of electron microscopy should be briefly noted.
    Other
    Copyright of published manuscripts is owned by Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.
    Publication fees are payable to the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.
    When additional copies are required, the number should be specified on the title page of the manuscript. There is a fee for extra copies.
    Where manuscripts exceed the recommended length, a reduction in length may be required, or authors may be required to pay extra page charges.
    If specialized printing methods or paper types are needed, the additional costs will be charged to the authors. This does not apply to manuscripts commissioned by the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases.
    Contact information
    The Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    101-605 58, Banpo-dae, Seocho-gu, Seoul, 137-875, Korea

    Phone : 82-2-575-3825, 576-5347
    Fax : 82-2-572-6683
    E-mail : katrd@lungkorea.org
    Website : www.lungkorea.org